The Prehistory and Ancient History section displays artifacts that represent some of the earliest evidence of Korean civilization and culture, from stone tools of the Paleolithic
age to gold jewelry of the Silla Kingdom to stone monoliths of the Balhae era, with each
room documenting those aspects which uniquely defined each of Korea’s different
periods of ancient history.
The Paleolithic Age marks the cultural genesis of humanity, as the first humans separated themselves from their anthropoid relatives by beginning to make tools and use fire. The
Depending on the progress of human evolution and the development of tools, the Paleolithic Age can be divided into three different periods—the early, middle, and late Paleolithic. The early Paleolithic was the period of Homo erectus (“upright human”), who used large stone tools with various functions, including stone choppers and hand axes. The middle Paleolithic was marked by the rise of Homo sapiens (“wise human”), denoted by a wider range of smaller stone tools with more differentiated functions. The latter period is dominated by Homo sapiens sapiens, also known as anatomically modern humans (AMH). During this period, the first stone blades appeared, and the efficacy of stone tools and their manufacture continued to develop. Soon, more sophisticated tools emerged, as people combined small blades with branches or animal horns.
Excavations of late Paleolithic sites on the